Russian Filigree Art of the Millennium
In fact, Filigree is a kind of jewelry techniques, an openwork or soldered onto a metal background pattern of fine gold, silver or copper wire, smooth or suite in the rope. Besides, jewelers often decorate the filigree products with beading (small silver or gold beads) and enamel. Meanwhile, in ancient Russia scanning technique appeared in the IX – X centuries. In particular, Russian masters themselves have mastered the technique, and called it filigree. So, the Russian filigree, in fact, is the art of the millennium. Here is a sample list of metals that the craftsmen used for jewelry in filigree technique: zinc, tin, chromium, aluminum, iron, steel, copper, copper alloys (bronze, red brass, polutompak, brass, nickel silver, nickel silver), silver and gold. In the XVIII – XIX centuries filigree production took place in many artistic centers of Russia. Vases, salt shakers, boxes were a great work of art. In addition, in the production used crystal and pearl.
Since the XIX century, began industrial production in large scale using different technologies. In factories produced tableware, church utensils, and toiletries. During the Soviet era, became famous filigree products of Krasnoselskii jewelry factory in Kostroma region, Mstiora art factory “Jewel” (since 1937) in Vladimir region, and Yerevan Jewelry Factory. Along with the jewelry produced everyday objects: delicate filigree bowls, coasters, miniature sculptures, etc.
Noteworthy, Krasnoselsk filigree work is the most famous. Thus, the beautiful household items made here, displayed at international exhibitions in Paris (1937) and in New York (1939). Artel “Red craftsman” for filigree products received a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1937. In addition to Krasnoselskii area, the production of cheap jewellery – brooches, rings with colored glass pendants – existed in the Volga city of Ivanovo Region (co-operative “Presnya”). Besides, Krasnoselsk contributed to the jewelry trade in the Soviet years. Particularly, the production of filigree in the village of Casanova, the Gorky region and in the village Mstera, the Vladimir region.
Modern artist-jeweler Julia Malanchuk, continuing the tradition of the ancient masters, uses ancient techniques – filigree jewelry and dices in a highly fashionable jewelry and ornaments. For example, made with a great skill copy of the Cap of Monomakh for the film by Sergei Bondarchuk’s “Boris Godunov” is a treasure kept in the Museum of Mosfilm.
Filigree is a combination of various techniques, technical and technological features. Depending on the combinations are three main types of scanning:
soldered filigree – a pattern of wires soldered directly to the sheet metal base (background filigree, filigree punched, embossed filigree on the coinage, soldered filigree and enamel;
openwork filigree – decorative elements of metal thread soldered together, but not attached to the base, get some kind of metallic lace (flat openwork filigree, openwork filigree relief, complex openwork filigree);
filigree volume – volume products, component parts which are manufactured scanning equipment, and then joined together into a final object.
Moscow masters’s products in the technique of filigree became popular gifts for foreign ambassadors and rulers of the diplomatic relations. Another important customer to jewelry has become a church, filigree was used to create an exquisite and beautiful objects of church plate. Foreign travelers have noted that, in particular, in the Russian North has developed an original school of scanning, which in its elegance and miniature designs were carried out at the world’s best filigree.
Production of a variety of jewelry developed in Moscow and Leningrad. Artel “Moscow jeweler” in the Moscow factory “Lenemaler” and filigree enamel of Yuvelirtorg factory in Leningrad – large companies that manufactured in the Soviet years the bulk of delicate products.
Russian Filigree Art